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  • 함안출장샵╬출장부르는법♦함안모텔 콜『함안용현동 마사지』♂【함안장안동 안마방】♢함안사당┑함안마사지 남친┩함안안마방 방구▤함안카톡 출장 만남☼함안국 안마방 초이스

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    대구출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    함안출장샵◘예약█함안모텔 콜『함안안마방 다녀온』↕【함안목 마사지】♂함안상남동 마사지♤함안안마방 시스템☇함안엄태웅 안마방└함안문산 안마방↕함안대구 안마방 후기

    The governments of more than 190 nations 홍천가평 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    함안출장샵⇞24시출장샵▫함안모텔 콜『함안온천장 안마방』↿【함안마사지 구인】◐함안정읍 안마방▫함안분당 마사지↜함안강서 마사지┯함안마사지 품번 추천♠함안파주 마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    함안출장샵┳예약✃함안모텔 콜『함안대구 출장 마사지』♫【함안충주 안마방】↳함안태백 마사지♮함안양평 안마방♩함안포항 모텔 추천↪함안엄태웅 안마방ρ함안안마방 싸면 끝

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    함안출장샵☐출장부르는법◢함안모텔 콜『함안남양주 안마방』ヨ【함안수원 태국 마사지】┱함안전신 마사지•함안서울출장안마♠함안주안 모텔 추천⇉함안강남역 마사지⇥함안용산 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 제주도구래동 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    함안출장샵┳출장부르는법♪ 함안모텔 콜『함안전북 안마방』⇩【함안안마방 오일】↱함안호텔 걸◄함안아비게일 마사지┦함안모텔 찌라시☢함안vip 마사지☏함안마사지 단속 시간

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 대전출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    함안출장샵함안옆광대 마사지

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    함안출장샵✉출장부르는법⇩함안모텔 콜『함안위례 마사지』♥【함안서울 조건 카톡】↧함안안마방 미러◎함안창동 마사지┑함안베트남 마사지 가격0함안김해 출장 마사지╟함안오피스 걸

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 마산고양이 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, cpsblog.xyz . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

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    제주도안마방 아이돌 대구출장샵 용인마사지 영어로
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 진주출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    함안출장샵♧예약금없는출장샵│함안모텔 콜『함안마사지 관리사』↘【함안안마방 역립】▣함안타이 마사지╡함안마사지 출장↾함안야 동 마사지☱함안경찰 안마방 함안출장만남

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 논산장유 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    함안출장샵↹예약금없는출장샵●함안모텔 콜『함안복부 마사지』ヘ【함안안산 안마방 추천】┱함안거제 안마방 추천▨함안마사지 ssul▬함안마사지 동영상◘함안제주도 마사지⊙함안엄마와 딸 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    경주칭다오 마사지
    제주도일산 모텔 카지노사이트 인천안마방 태국녀
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    함안출장샵✂24시출장샵0함안모텔 콜『함안태국 마사지 마무리』▷【함안마사지 물】◦함안일본 마사지 노모▒함안괌 안마방◦함안세r시 마사지┳함안허리 마사지↣함안대전 출장안마

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 온라인카지노 .

    함안출장샵♫출장부르는법⇅함안모텔 콜『함안출장 타이 마사지』❁【함안일산 안마방】W함안신천 모텔 추천₪함안얼굴 림프 마사지⊙함안마사지 ㅅㅅホ함안발바닥 마사지↿함안클럭 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 논산안마방 파워배드 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    함안출장샵╤출장부르는법♧함안모텔 콜『함안교대 안마방』╘【함안성서 안마방】❥함안스타 안마방┲함안안마방 코스ケ함안안마방 풋잡➶함안수유역 마사지⇂함안송파 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    함안출장샵♡24시출장샵♠함안모텔 콜『함안진주 안마방』←【함안미약 마사지】▶함안수원 마사지 추천φ함안안마ω함안마사지 섹스〓함안역곡 마사지⇅함안코스프레 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 장수안마방 밥 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 평택출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 부산출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 파주부산 모텔 아가씨 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 포항출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    함안출장샵⇈예약금없는출장샵⇔함안모텔 콜『함안아로마 마사지 후기』⊥【함안비키니 마사지】➼함안오산 마사지➺함안하남 안마방♧함안마사지 오일↺함안모텔 찌라시▧ 함안안산 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 온라인카지노 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 온라인카지노 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 온라인카지노 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    함안출장샵╤24시출장샵◎함안모텔 콜『함안모유수유 마사지』♟【함안안마방 tumblr】⇖함안출장녀➶함안안양 안마방♩함안종아리 마사지┧함안베이징 안마방✔함안고양이 안마방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    증평김천 안마방
    바카라사이트 광주림프절 마사지 광주출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    함안출장샵▥출장부르는법☣함안모텔 콜『함안서혜부 마사지』◑【함안용인 안마방】▪함안아프리카 마사지☳함안경산 마사지┖함안원주 마사지⊙함안거제 마사지☞함안안마방 백마

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.함안출장샵함안야동 실제♐함안순천 타이 마사지╨【함안스웨디시 마사지 후기】함안로드샵 단속ⓥ함안용산 안마방↼함안안마방 파워배드♪ 함안태국 여행 마사지♥원주출장샵예약함안대구 안마방 후기╘함안해변 마사지✃(함안마사지 로드샵)함안예약금 없는 출장↙함안김천 마사지⇡함안스웨디시 마사지 단점◈함안안마방 레베카►함안출장샵고성마사지 야.동함안미금 안마방╂함안나고야 여성 전용 마사지⇩<함안용암동 마사지>함안안마♡함안홍콩 안마방♨함안안마방 알바 후기φ함안마사지황형♧함안안마방 ssul⇦함안안마방 순서➻<함안강동 마사지>함안마사지 노출♀함안안마방 야동┳함안연수동 마사지╏함안울산 명촌 안마방▨함안성감 마사지♐함안안마방 핸드폰↔﹝함안건식 마사지﹞함안흉쇄유돌근 마사지┛함안안마방 어디까지⇢함안범계 마사지⇥함안동두천 마사지◊함안평택역 마사지☞함안여자 마사지╔〈함안세종시 안마방〉함안긴장성 두통 마사지μ함안대구 동대구역 모텔큐함안안마방 여자친구✌함안마사지 사이트→예약홍천대구 서구 안마방예약금없는출장샵함안광양 안마방τ함안안마방 몰래◥『함안오키나와 마사지』함안평택역 안마방➻함안조건 만남 카페╃함안안마방 엄마♕함안거제도 안마방♀함안출장샵함안출장샵부산출장안마함안서울 마사지함안마사지 트위터함안전립선 마사지함안아주동 마사지함안출장샵함안일산 여관ⓥ함안중앙동 안마방π〖함안서울 조건 만남〗함안연동 안마방⇡함안베이징 안마방ε함안서울 출장안마┮함안모텔 보도♚청도포항 타이 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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